Wednesday, January 30, 2008

B26 Marauder vs ME 262




B26 SHOOTS DOWN ME262 JET: 1st Lt. T.V.HARWOOD'S Mission 44,official 323rd Bomb Group, 456th Bomb Squad combat mission/ target number # 376
was flown on the afternoon of 4-20-45 and lasted 4:20 hours, the second mission of the day for
Harwoods crew. 35 ships of the 323rd went up at 11,000 feet. Harwood’s plane, Martin B26 Marauder;
42-96090 WT-M (Bltitz Wagon), dropped 2 2000lbs bombs on the railroad yard at Memmingen,
Germany. Crew: Theodore V. Harwood (P) 2nd/1st Lt., Eugene T. Muszynski (CP) 2nd/1st Lt.,
Anthony B. Caezza (NB) S/SGT., James N. Night (?) T/Sgt., George W. Boyd (RG) S/Sgt.,
Raymond Deboer (TG) S/Sgt. Base of operations; Denain/Prouvy, France. It was April 20th,
1945, in the afternoon. Thirty-five B-26 Marauders flew out toward Nordlingen, Germany to
drop their bomb load from 10,000 feet in the sky to the railroad yard below. This was our next to
the last mission of the war and like any mission, it could have been our last. From the skies below
came a vision of death, the foremost of the German Luftwaffe Jet, rocket aircraft, the ME-262
armed with a 50 mm cannon. It was only seconds before the ME-262 was upon us. I could see the
50 mm cannon of the ME-262 cut loose. It was very close. The whole ordeal was like watching it
happen right in front of you in the fast lane of the freeway. The 50 mm cannon bursts hit the
number two plane, right wing man, and sheered the nacelle door off. I could see it as clear as day.
We had no fighter escort on most missions and on this mission we were alone so we had to take
care of the problem ourselves. The entire squadron opened up with everything we had. Quite
possible it was out turret gunner, but someone found the target and the ME-262 went down. One
of the first jets ever shot down in combat. That same ME-262 craft is now on display at the Air
Force museum in Dayton, Ohio. This occurrence was accidentally misquoted by Major General
John 0. Moench. He had documented the ME-262 attack on 4-25-45, which would have been the
B-26 bombing raid on the German airfield at Erding. The mission that had the ME-262 attack was
on 4/20/45 on the B-26 Nordlingen railroad yard bombing raid. This element is listed in the
official mission folder. The account documented by Major General Moench is as follows:
"Flying the left wing on the Box I, number four flight leader, Ist Lt. Theodore V.
Harwood s postwar account of the ME-262 attack included an observation of fire from the
attackers against the lead flight and the sudden loss of a nacelle door from Capt. Trostle's right
wingman. "Our top turret was chattering like mad and the air in front of us was filled with 50
caliber casings." This element of the attack was not noted in the mission folder." It appears the
date here or in Meonch’s book may be off - 4-25-45 ---The 262 may have hit on both days! he
was on both missions.
MEONCH RECORDING OF HARWOOD: “Ah the second question you have ah on the
last mission April 25, 1945 to Arding, Germany of the 262s ah I was in ship 040 in the low flight
ah, as I recall, according to your diagram everything was in the rear of the flight, however aha as I
recall, I saw the Me262 come up from our right - position itself below us and shoot at the lead
flight, as I recall, according to your diagram here number 969 which was on the right of 131 the
lead ship, I don’t recall any other ship numbers except our own, ah however I could see the 37
MM. puffs of ah smoke from his cannon as he fired, and as I recall the right nacelle door flew off
number 969 in your position ah, that was about all there was to that mission as I could see. Our
top turret gunner was firing which that was the first mission in my 45 mission that the gunners
ever fired a shot and that was sort of startling because I didn’t know they were going to fire made
considerable rattle, the whole sky in front of me was filled with 50 Caliber empties coming out of
ah, I guess the lead flight there but I don’t know how they got back there because according to
your diagram, this ME 262 was ah unless I got this thing reversed, but I wasn’t in the lead flight,
but this trail you got here shows everything in the rear of the flight, but defiantly we saw the 262
and I saw it fire and saw the smoke from the, when the cannon went off you could see a little puff
black smoke every time it fired. Ah, our top turret gunner engineer was considerably ah -hepped
up he thought he hit the thing (laughs) I don’t know there was so much brass in the air, that was
by big problem worrying about the brass coming though the canopy or through the ah
bombardier’s nose compartment.”

This review is from: American Flintknappers: Stone Age Art in the Age of Computers (Hardcover)


This review is from: American Flintknappers: Stone Age Art in the Age of Computers (Hardcover)
American Flintknappers is an American classic. This book is an amazing journey through the strange subculture of American Flintknappers. From an
anthropologists set of eyes. A journey through the past, of men who followed the way of the stone. From Ishi to flake over grinding, the whole experience is here and when you read it you will be there too. Ray Harwood, Western Lithics.

Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Swoose's Paleo Knapping Technique

The Question that set Swoose, JOHN ALEXANDER, on his quest for the unlocking of the paleo pattern flake code was “how did Indians make such beautiful points out of such hard flint?” It was 1932 and Swoose was 12 years old, in a small west Texas town called McCamey. McCamey, Texas has been called many things over the years. Some of the nicer ones are "Child of Black Gold", "Home of the First Rattle Snake Derby", and just recently the town slogan for the 75th anniversary was "75 and Still Alive". Now McCamey has a new title. By resolution of the Texas Legislator. On February 22, 2001 McCamey was declared the "Wind Energy Capital of Texas", population 1805.

It took Swoose 18 years to to gain the skill and knowledge to master the patterned oblique flaking and fluting. The year after Swoose started knapping, on a Fourth of July
Swoose blew much of his left hand off with a large home made fire cracker,. He was 13 years old and missing his lft thumb and middle finger only slowed him down temporarily and by 1950 he had mastered his craft. Swoose said that he discovered the most important secret by mistake, “I was thinking about something else and I accidentally put a lot of pressure on my perform- instead of leaving a space for the flake detachment, I call this distributed back pressure . This holds the flake together and gives it greater traveling capacity” Swoose used a mounted horn, not antler, wedge to pressure flake the unground margins of his performs and pushed and sheared instead of down and in like Crabtree and Ishi.

Monday, January 7, 2008

Good bye Swoose


Swoose— From Ray
It was early one Saturday afternoon and I got a call from a flintknapper from Texas, he had read the tip flute article I had published in Gary Foggleman’s “Indian Artifact Magazine”. My name is “Swoose!” Swoose gave me a dtailedaccount of the article, he understood the anomaly better than I did- and I wrote the article!. Swoose agreed that a premature flute termination may have, in some prehistoric situations, been overcome by turning the point around and fluting the point from the tip.
A few decades ago a Hungarian inverter, Emo Rubik, invented the mind bending puzzle know as Rubik’s Cube. Flintknapping, the lithic arts, are much like Rubik’s Cube in that a systematic line of attack to break down the sequence into sub problems and then face those on a case by case scenario optimally. Swoose , through his own mastery of deduction, mastered the puzzle, the puzzle of paleo flintknapping.
John Alexander, who goes by the nickname "Swoose," Used a unique process that involves a combination of levered pressure against a prepared platform and a slight percussion strike against the flat surface of the biface near the platform. Striking the surface, which is already under pressure, initiates the fracturing process. Bob Patten (2005) refers to "Swoose's" method of fluting as "axial compression." This technique produces long flutes that relate to Barnes and Cumberland points. (Bostrom, Casting Lab).
According to John Whittaker, author of “American Flintknappers”: “Flint knappers can also be considered a subculture, a smaller unit within American culture as a whole”. All of us that fit into this subculture have our own little niche . Swoose found his as a master of his own method of paleo knapping .

Star Trek creator Gene Roddeberry’s landmark space burial about a decade, or so, ago have long since come crashing back to earth with the hope of space immortality . There was a bumper sticker that Bob Patten used to sell “Love is fleeting, Stone is forever” , I think Bob was right, this being the case Swoose will live forever through his magnificent
Parallel flaked and fluted flint art.


Swooses’ life as told by Peter Bostrum’s Lithic Casting Lab”

“-"Swoose" lives in a small west Texas town called McCamey where he's called home for 86 years. He has many other talents other than flintknapping. The local community is proud of his athletic accomplishments. In various Senior Texas and World track and field events he's held 9 age group world records and received over 400 gold medals. In 2000 John Alexander was inducted into the Texas Senior Games Hall of Fame. When asked by Peter Bostrom, of Lithic Casting Lab, how he came up with the idea of fluting in this peculiar way, "Swoose" says he was exposed to the basic concept when he was stationed in New Guinea during World War II. New Guinea was and still is one of the best locations in the world to observe primitive technology. He was assigned to the 912 signal company and was on active duty from 1942-1945. Before the war, "Swoose" was a ham radio operator. He began with his crystal set in 1933. His knowledge of electronics guided his time in the military towards radar, specializing in repair and installation. In New Guinea he says when the local natives needed power to do something, they used levers. His experimenting with pressure using a lever has produced a simple forked limb method of removing a long Cumberland style channel flake.

Sunday, January 6, 2008

BAKERSFIELD KNAP-IN STARTS ANOTHER YEAR! 2008








A fierce arctic storm lashed California on Friday, toppling trees, soaking a coastal landscape already charred by wildfires and threatening to paralyze the mountains with deep snow. Rain Pelted the landscapes of the farms and hills around Bakersfield Saturday and Sunday, but a "rain shadow" kept most of the precipitation out Bakersfield itself long enough for Gary Picket to put on his monthly knap-in at Hart Park on the Kern River.. The Bakersfield knap-in is the longest running monthly knap in in the world thus far.

# Bakersfield's Free Press Newspaper | The Blackboard
With more rodents available, birds of prey have thrived. A list of some ofthe endangered or threatened species living at CALM follows Desert Tortoise
http://www.theblackboardfreepress.com/200306/articles5.html

Extractions: By RAY HARWOOD, THE BLACKBOARD I sit down under the cool shade of pine, the mountain air clean and cleansing. My thoughts go back to a time and place where humans and nature were one, when humans made tools and a living from simple survival skills related closely to the earth. To be one with nature is to be fulfilled. Some local artisans have a hobby along these lines, bringing us back to that stone age time. The group meets on the southeast corner of Hart Part on the first Sunday of each month. The hobby, known as "flintknapping,” is the ancient art of chipping flint type stones into arrowheads, tomahawks and other ancient artifact replicas. As an art form, the image of flakes on stone has a strange attraction, a fascination perhaps, held over from our stone age ancestors. The arrowhead group sets up a barbecue, complete with a banjo player or occasionally a native drum, and commences to chip rocks at about 9:30 am until lunch, then again until the park closes at dusk. They chip glassy rocks to create fantastic stone knives and arrowheads. The group’s leader, Gary Picket, learned the stone age craft while living in Missouri, where flint Indian artifacts are common in the creeks and hollers. Picket experimented for many years before he mastered the craft. Picket says that modern flintknappers sign their work to keep it from being misrepresented as ancient. He invites all interested to the park to learn more about this strange but growing hobby. Gary often does demonstrations for events, schools and museums. For more information, call (661) 392-7729.

Thursday, January 3, 2008

Robert Blue - Flintknapper



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Robert was a real nice fellow, I met him through my old newsletter "Flintknapping Digest" in the early 1980s and then met him and his wife Linda at the 1989 Wrightwood knap-in. Robert was an amazing painter and artist and it showed in his knapping. Robert sought out all the greats to learn the knapping craft. Linda Blue came to some the the 1990s knap-ins to honor her husband, Robert Blue - artist, knapper & teacher - who died on January 22, 1998.



According to John Whittaker, author of “American Flintknappers”: “Flint knappers can also be considered a subculture, a smaller unit within American culture as a whole”. All of us that fit into this subculture have our own little niche . Robert Blue had his, from my perspective Robert revived, to some extent, Rinehardt’s lever flaking on large rectangled slabs- and for sure was responsible for its’ use in California in the 1980s. He was also instrumental in the emergence of the lapidary art of “flake over grinding” on jaspers for pattern flaked points (Richard Warren and Jim Hopper style) here in California.

“The knap-in is a public arena where knappers perform their craft and interact with other knappers” (Whittaker). The Wrightwood knap-in, held at Jackson Lake near Wrightwood, California, was the knap-in Robert attended. Knap-ins have specific structure that has evolved overtime. The first knap-ins were circles of knappers attempting to ascertain archaeological data – unlocking the mysteries of lithic technology.Later the became a circle of artists sharing techniques, later booths were added and more of a fair atmosphere, then lapidary equipment and quest for the perfect point- and booths . All of these stages were enjoyable and beneficial to the participants. Each year at Wrightwood there was a centralized knap-in circle, this is where the knapping was undertaken in earnest and people showed what they were made of, it was high noon and the knappers were like gun slingers and pattern flaking could outdraw fluted Folsoms and that could only be trumped by a massive biface. It was all in good fun but prestige was on the line if one was to blow out a key-hole notch or end-snap a large biface when in the circle. I think most knappers were so intent on what they were doing that they didn’t give others but a glance. Most of us had a set up around a secondary perimeter, this is where the booths and demos took place. In the morning after the time at the fire pit, people broke off and went to their set up. Robert Blues set up was right on the edge of the open area, on what might be called the entry, as you drove up the steep dirt entry he was right after the turn on the right, under a large scrub oak. I recall a fairly large gathering at his set up watching him demonstare both flake over grinding technology and lever flaking. Robert’s lever flaker was made of large carpenter vises clamped together. After he was done with his demonstrations he brought his modern knappers collection into the knapping circle and we all looking and pondered. I recall Robert’s detailed narrative for each piece of lithic art. After the collection had been fully explored Robert sat within the spherical line of knappers and took his rightful place within “a smaller unit within American culture as a whole”.









Robert Blue of Studio City, California was inspired by a collection of Reinhardt's points , Reinhardt had been long dead but Blue did find fellow Gray Ghost collector, Charlie Shewey in Missouri. Robert offered to buy all of Shewey's Gray Ghosts and Richard Warren points and that money was no object. Charlie refused Blue's offer, but directed Robert to Richard Warren. After Robert bought a fair number of points, Warren shared some of his secrets with Robert Blue and introduced him to Jim Hopper, whom Warren had taught. Jim Hopper and Robert Blue became good friends and Robert became very good at art knapping. Barney DeSimone, couched Robert through his early years of knapping. Later Robert inspired Barney to return somewhat to lapidary knapping. It was Robert Blue that taught Ray Harwood to knap in the lever style of Reinhardt, Ray produced dozens of "Raynish Daggers" with the lever flaker. The Raynish Daggers were simply slab points in the form of 10 inch Danish Daggers ("2-D daggers" -not 3 dimensional). These were what Callahan called the ugliest Danish Daggers he had ever seen. After Robert's death and some prompting from DeSimone and Callahan, Harwood returned to traditional flintknapping. One interesting bit of knapping lore I overheard at a knap in goes like this:" Steve Behenes had invented this steel fluting jig that could flute supper this preforms. Steve was close to Robert Blue at the time and he sent Robert a thin Folsom and the detached flutes, Robert returned the detached flute -and he had fluted them !

ROBERT BLUE THE ARTIST OBITUARY :

FROM "VARIETY MAGAZINE " AND "WIKIPEDIA"
Robert D. Blue, dead at 50
Son of the late Ben Blue
By VARIETY STAFF
"Robert D. Blue, son of the late actor-comedian Ben Blue, died Jan. 22 of brain cancer at St. John's Medical Center in Santa Monica. He was 50.
Blue, an accomplished artist-painter, had a long history of gallery shows across the U.S. and in Japan. He was co-founder of Davis-Blue Artwork, L.A., and at the time of his death was serving as chairman of fine art at Assn. in Art, Van Nuys.
Blue is survived by his wife, Linda, and a brother.
A funeral mass will be held at 7:30 p.m. Fridayat St. Paul the Apostle Church, 10750 Ohio, Westwood.
Robert D.[1] Blue (1946[2]- January 22, 1998[3]) was a painter noted for his images of pin-up girls in the 1980's and later his cowgirls of the New West series. He was the son of comedic actor Ben Blue[4].
] Biography
Born in Los Angeles[5] in 1946, Robert Blue grew up in Beverly Hills. He served in the United States Army and attended the California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, earning a BFA at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles.
His work precedes that of similar artist Patrick Nagel. In 1979, Blue joined Brian Davis to form the Davis-Blue Artwork publishing company. Collectors of Blue's art have included Jack Nicholson, Barbra Streisand and Hugh Hefner, as well as numerous corporate collectors, including the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Los Angeles, and the Atlanta Hilton Motel. Blue served as chairman of fine art at Assn. in Art, Van Nuys.
Blue succumbed to brain cancer[6] in Santa Monica in 1998, and the Robert Blue Foundation to aid brain cancer victims was instituted in his memory. He was survived by his wife, Linda, and his brother, Tom.
Two films have featured Blue's art; 1974's The Second Coming of Suzanne, and 1984's Heartbreakers, the latter of which was loosely based on Blue himself[7]. There has also been a character in a novel based on him."

1984's Heartbreakers, Film Based on Robert Blue:

"Blue{Robert} and Eli, two friends, have problems with women. Blue, a yet-to-be discovered painter is left by his longtime girlfriend, because she considers him too immature for a longlsting relationship. Eli on the other hand, who works in his father's aerobic suit business, is still searching for a woman who is interesting enough to spend more than one night with her. Their friendship is put to a severe test as both fall in love with Liliane, Blue's attractive new gallerist. Written by Robert Zeithammel {zeit@cip.physik.uni-muenchen.de}"

John Wellman, Flintknapper



John Wellman, Ray Harwood and the late Robert Rexroth cutting up antler tools
and making one of John's "twist flakers".




Here John Wellman demonstrates his "twist flaker" I saw john make many very nice points with this tool. He wrote an article about it in the Mound Builder books publication :20thCentury Lithics", edited by D.C. Waldorf.



John Wellman here demonstrates his fluting board. He and I spend many an hour fluting points with this in the 1980s.

I met John Wellman in 1988, over the phone and later met him at the 1989 Wrightwood knap-in. John was a teacher in the bay area and knapped a lot of Clear Lake and Borax Lake obsidian he had collected. John was from the old school and was friends with many of the old "Flintknapper's Exchange" . J.B Sollberger, Crabtree and Callahan. John was turned off by the knapping communities' politics and dropped out in 1978, but when he say some new knappers out there...ie me and "da boys" he resurfaced and became active again. He published the book and tape "Sequential Flaking" with was a giant book of hundreds of pages. John was one of the most knowledgeable knappers I ever met. He pioneered the "twist flaker" and "fluting board" but he was an expert at everything: fluting, pattern flaking and percussion. John wrote for"Flintknapper'Exchange", "Flintknapping Digest" "20th Century Lithics" and "Chips". John came by my house last about 15 years ago.

Tuesday, January 1, 2008

The 1988 Wrightwood Knapp-in



Friends- Jim Winn and Barney Desimone discussing knapping technology.


Barney Desimone and Alton Safford





Stever Carter flintknapping. Steve Carter came up from Ramona in his old flatbed truck, Steve was into pattern flaking and amazingly thin percussion bifacing .




Peter Ainsworth gets some advice from Jeannie Binning.




Barney DeSimone with one of his knives, note the detailed pattern flakes, his son came withhim this year and holds up a nice biface made by his pop.


Jimm Winn with one of his flint knives. Jim Winn used the traditional methods of percussion and pressure flaking to knapp his points. Never use flake over grinding. His tool kit includes both aboriginal or traditional tools such as antler and stone percussors as well as more modern tools such as copper. Most of his knives and points are knapped from spalls or cobbles of chert, jasper, or obsidian.




The late George Hough has some flint he had dug up in Idaho, Jim Winn, Barney Desomone and his son and others were getting there trades ready. Jim got mad at me because I took some hammer stone swings a really big beautiful piece that he had his sights on, luckily I didn't damage it to bad and he was able to use it.



Alton Safford hada bone to pick!



Dr. Peter Ainsworth was knapping some large obsidian bi-faces in the Crabtree tradtion that year.



The1988 knap-in started with only Peter Ainsworth, Bob Bean and Ray Harwood, but by friday night the place was crowded.

I remember the 1988 Wrightwood knapin. This was one of the knap-ins held at Jackson lake. Jackson lake is an alpine type lake in the high country. Location and Directions: Jackson Lake is located in the Angeles National Forest near the city of Wrightwood. From Los Angeles take I-10 East to I-15 North. Travel N. on I-15 to Cajon Pass - Hwy. 138. Turn left (north) on Hwy 138 and travel 8 miles to Hwy. 2. Turn Left on Hwy 2 and travel 10 miles to Big Pines, then turn Right on County Road N4 and travel 3 miles to the lake. This is a small lake of 7 surface acres at an elevation of 6,000 feet. It is open all year but sometimes freezes over during the winter. Tent and RV camping is available near the lake. There are no concessions. Nearest supplies are 7 miles to the East in the own of Wrightwood. It was cold at night and warm and sunny in the day. It was the most beautiful place for a knap-in of all. The camp was a flat plateau just above the lake itself and it had a hard sandy floor, it had a good open area for archery, atlatl and knapping.
Jim Winn came up to Wrightwood in 1988, he had skipped a year or two. Jim’s interest in flintknapping began shortly after he moved to Oregon in 1979. His neighbor was an avid collector and took him on his first arrowhead hunt. He was hooked! Jim spent the next few years actively hunting points. Some of the points he found were incredibly well knapped, and I became determined to learn how it was done. He discovered DC Waldorf’s book, “The Art of Flintknapping” and he been knapping ever since!

Jim Winn used the traditional methods of percussion and pressure flaking to knapp his points. Never use flake over grinding. His tool kit includes both aboriginal or traditional tools such as antler and stone percussors as well as more modern tools such as copper. Most of his knives and points are knapped from spalls or cobbles of chert, jasper, or obsidian. I had done some rabbit hunting, atlatl shooting and Barney DeSimone and I had been to Jim’s house, then in the Valley to flute Clovis with a jig.
Barney DeSimone came up "the A-wop-a-hoe", was his joke- he is Italian and everyone thought he was an Indian, so he said I am a "wop" and a hoe -so people thought he was a "A-wop-a-hoe", which is not a real tribe! Steve Carter came up from Ramona in his old flatbed truck, Steve was into pattern flaking and amazingly thin percussion bifacing before anyone else I have known about. Alton Safford was there and he demonstrated using sinew, bow shooting- did knapping and ate a lot of apples, he also brought some longbows he had made, his nickname is "Longbow Safford" . Peter Ainsworth and Jeannie Binning showed up from the acedemic knapping community and were doing very nice "Crabtree" large biface work. I can't remember much more about that knap-in except it was really fun and wonderful 4 days in heaven.


WRIGHTWOOD KNAP IN STARTED IN 1984, SET UP BY RAY HARWOOD AND ALTON SAFFORD AT JACKSON LAKE., BUT OUR FIRST CALIFORNIA FLINTKNAPPING RENDEZVOUS WAS IN 1983 AT CSUN. SET UP BY RAY HARWOOD. AT THE FIRST KNAP IN 1983 : RAY HARWOOD, ALTON SAFFORD, JOHN ATWOOD, RICK WESSEL, CLAY SINGER, GEORGE HUFF, JENNIE BINNING, ROY VANDERHOOK, TERRY FREDERICK, JOE DABIL, FRED BUDINGER, TED HARWOOD, NANCY HARWOOD, BRIAN GUNTHER, AND A HOST OF OTHERS. FIRST LOCATION: C.S.U.N. . SECOND: JACKSON LAKE FLAT. THIRD; CAMP GUFFY (TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN) FOURTH: INDIAN HILLS RANCH. Ray had flintknapped in an artistic vacuum until he was in his early 20s. This is when Ray met fellow Ishi fans, Joe Dabil, Barney DeSimone, Steve Carter, Jim Win, Jennie Binning and Alton Safford. Barney had a small business called Yana Enterprises where he marketed his Ishi posters and items and had become an expert Ishi style knapper, to the point that he had killed a wild boar on Catalina Island armed with a sinew backed bow and Ishi tipped arrow of glass of his own making. Atlton was an avid traditional bow hunter and knapper, he had even hunted big game in Africa a few times with stone points. Years later Alton and Ray started the yearly California Flintknapping Rendezvous. Joe Dabil had become a California legend by the late 1970s and had the nick name of "Indian Joe", this name given to him by the prominent archaeologists of the day. Joe could make fire in of minutes with a natural yucca file board and mule fat stick. Joe was also a master of the Ishi style flintknapping methodology. Joe's Ishi points of both glass and obsidian were each an impressive work of art. Ray and Joe became friends and Ray began to study Joe's flintknapping methods. Joe Dabil had learned the arts of wilderness survival hands on. Joe was an Olympic class long distance runner in the 1960s, and when a Doctor informed him he had a life threatening decease he fled into the wilderness. There in the woods, alone, Joe eked out a survival on natural foods. Eventually Joe relearned the arts of Ishi, sinew back bow making, arrow-smithing, fire drill technology, cordage making, brain tanning and of coarse...flintknapping. As miracle have it, Joe lived out his death sentence and is still practicing wilderness skills today. Steve Carter was already an established master knapper when Ray met him in the early 1980s. Steve had been friends with J.B.Sollberger of Dallas, Texas and with J.B.s inspiration, at the 1978 Little Lake knap-in, Steve developed his own unique knapping style, one in which he detached the flakes of the top of the preform as opposed to the bottom that rests on the palm of the hand. Steve was versatile and also used the Ishi style knapping techniques. Steve's work even impressed the Grand Masters; Sollberger, Titmus, Callahan and Crabtree. Jimm Winn was there at the second or third Wrightwood knap-in with Barney Desimone and George hough and George Hough and Dick Baugh. Jim did a lot of heat treating of local materials there in the famous Wrightwood fire pit at Jackson Lake Flat. After the close of the Flintknappers' Exchange in 1981, there was a void for two years. Communication among flintknappers slowed to a stop. In 1984 at the knap-in at the Northridge Archaeological Research Center I was talking about the need for a newsletter to Clay Singer and Terry Frederick, they suggested I do it, well I had dyslexia, couldn't type and had no money, okay! Alton Safford, Jeannie Binning and Joe Dabill encouraged as well. I couldn't get anyone to help me with the project so I did it myself. I started work on the first issue, all the words were misspelled, the grammar was just as bad, I cut and past the cover. I wanted to call it the Flintknappers' Monthly but I couldn't find those words in the old NARC newsletters so I got close with "FLintknapping Digest" and cut and pasted it on the cover. I used the address list in the old Flintknappers' Exchange at the end of each article to find the knappers. It worked I began to get a flood of mail about it. It was really amateurish and I got a lot of flak, but everybody who got it loved it. Clay Singer said "it has a folksy, underground publication look" . In any case it got better with each issue. I remember asking J.B. Sollberger to write an article for me and he got really mad. He said that I was just trying to associate with his name to gain fame and make the newsletter sell better , I was unaffected and said yes, so do I get the article? We got along fine after that and I did get the article, I think he trusted me to tell the truth after that. He even made me some fluted points. The "J.B." in J.B. Sollberger is rumored to stand for "John the Baptist" . So you see with a reputation like that truth means a lot. I was amazed that the little newsletter was doing so well, my mom was too, she never thought such a weird newsletter would work. I was 24 years old when I started the newsletter and didn't have a whole lot else going, it was great, I met all my flintknapping heroes. One day I got a letter from D.C. Waldorf and he was asking about something, I can't remember, but he referred to the Flintknapping Digest as "The Digest", I put the letter in the next issue and from then on that's what everyone called it. Even now I see it referenced to time and again and it is almost always given its affectionate name "The Digest" it gave knappers a worm and fuzzy feel, like an old dog that you had when you were a kid. Even old dogs pass on, and in the late 1980s, even with Val Waldorf's help, I couldn't do it anymore. After some coaxing the waldorf's took pity on me and took the newsletter over. They gave it a face lift and a new name "Chips" . .Paul Hellweg, a fellow Army Tanker. Paul, likes to specialise inground stone axe manufacture, and he is quite good at it. He was actually a Crabtree and Flenniken Student, but went over to the servival camp when he got a job teaching it at C.S.U.N. where I first met him in the early 1980s. Paul wrote some nice articles for the Flintknapping Digest in 1984 and published a book on knapping the same year, Flintknapping, The Art of Making Stone Tools that has sold over 50,000 copies. Hellweg has also writen many other books and is doing quite well financially. I attented a week long Callahan school with him in the summer and and he appears to be thinking of redoing his book and becomming more active in the knapping world. San Diego, California was a hot bed of really good knappers in the early 1970s, it sprung from a visit from Sollberger sometime in that era. Only Steve Carter remains of that group. Navodne (Rod) Reiner, another California sad story , Rod was one of the San Diego flintknappers that Steve Carter hung around with in the 1970s. Like Steve, Rod was a really good flintknapper, all traditional, and good person. Rod did a lot of knapping and made nice pieces of lithic art but was also interested in the experimental aspect as well. Rod came up with the two man fluting technique; Reiner gripped the biface in his left hand, held it down tightly against his thigh, while his right hand used the full weight of his body from the shoulder to bear down on the flaking tool. Then, to this he added a little more force by using a second person to deliver a light tapping blow to the end of the pressure flaker with a mallet. Reiner stated that the mallet strikes just at the instant that the pressure flake is pressed off. With Rod's method both constant pressure and a releasing percussion impact a nice flute is detached. Rod, whom was also at the Little Lake knap-in was a very good knapper and a big influence on Steve Carter, but Rod was killed early on in a hunting accident. Chris Hardacker was another, he just faded into the woodwork, I saw him working as a digger for Jeannie Binning at one of her digs in the middle 1980s. Robert Blue of Studio City, California was inspired by a collection of Reinhardt's points , Reinhardt had been long dead but Blue did find fellow Gray Ghost collector, Charlie Shewey in Missouri. Robert offered to buy all of Shewey's Gray Ghosts and Richard Warren points and that money was no object. Charlie refused Blue's offer, but directed Robert to Richard Warren. After Robert bought a fair number of points, Warren shared some of his secrets with Robert Blue and introduced him to Jim Hopper, whom Warren had taught. Jim Hopper andRobert Blue became good friends and Robert became very good at art knapping. Barney DeSimone, couched Robert through his early years of knapping. Later Robert inspired Barney to return somewhat to lapidary knapping. It was Robert Blue that taught Ray Harwood to knap in the lever style of Reinhardt, Ray produced dozens of "Raynish Daggers" with the lever flaker. The Raynish Daggers were simply slab points in the form of 10 inch Danish Daggers ("2-D daggers" -not 3 dimensional). These were what Callahan called the ugliest Danish Daggers he had ever seen. After Robert's death and some prompting from DeSimone and Callahan, Harwood returned to traditional flintknapping. One interesting bit of knapping lore I overheard at a knap in goes like this:" Steve Behenes had invented this steel fluting jig that could flute supper this preforms. Steve was close to Robert Blue at the time and he sent Robert a thin Folsom and the detached flutes, Robert returned the detached flute -and he had fluted them ! . Joe Dabil, Joe had become a California legend by the late 1960s and had the nick name of "Indian Joe", this name given to him by the prominent archaeologists of the day. Joe says he learned his style by trail and error using books with Ishi points as a pattern,same for the knapping tools. His notching style comes a great deal from Errett. Joe could make fire in of minutes with a natural yucca file board and mule fat stick. Joe was also a master of the Ishi style flintknapping methodology. I first came to here about him in about 1969 and then in the 70s, he gave demos on Catalina Island for Archaeologists and movie people. His points were often seen for sale for $3.50 up and down the central to northern California coastal towns, these populated by thousands of hippies. I remember buying one in a hippie shop in Pismo Beech in 1976. The hippie lady at the counter said I could meet the knapper, but like as ass I sais "naw it's OK. I did end up meeting him 8 years later, in 1984, at CSUN. Joe's Ishi points of both glass and obsidian were each an impressive work of art. Ray and Joe became friends and Ray began to study Joe's flintknapping methods. Joe Dabil had learned the arts of wilderness survival hands on. Joe was an Olympic class long distance runner in the 1960s, and when a Doctor informed him he had a life threatening decease disease he fled into the wilderness. There in the woods, alone, Joe eked out a survival on natural foods. Eventually Joe relearned the arts of Ishi, sinew back bow making, arrow-smithing, fire drill technology, cordage making, brain tanning and of coarse...flintknapping. As miracle have it, Joe lived out his death sentence and is still practicing wilderness skills today. The information set forth in this text relied heavly on the fallowing publications: Fintknapper's Exchange: Atchiston, Inc. 4426 Constution N.E. Albuquerque, NM 87110 Etidors: Errett Callahan, Jacqueline Nichols and Penelope Katson. Flintknapping Digest. Harwood Archaeology 4911 Shadow Stone Bakersfield, CA 93313 Editor: Ray Harwood Bulletin of Primitive Technology. Journal of the Society of Primative Technology P.O. Box 905 Rexburg, ID 83440 Dave Wescot, Editor Chips Mound Builder Books P.O. Box 702 Branson, MO. 65615 Editors: Val Waldorf, D.C. Waldorf and Dane Martin. New Flintknapper's Exchange. High Fire Flints 11212 Hooper Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70818 Editors: Jeff Behrnes, Steve Behernes and Chas Spear 20Th Century Lithics. Mound Builder Books P.O. Box 702 Branson, MO. 65615 Editors: Val Waldorf and D.C.

THE 1987 WRIGHTWOOD KNAP-IN






Dr. Jeannie Binning with Steve Carter.


Dr.Jeannie Binning bifacing a large obsidian spall, onlookers are Peter Ainsworth, Terry Frederick and Steve Carter. Jeannie alway drew a hefty crowd when she made large Crabtree bifaces.


Alton Safford ,Steve Carter, Joe Dabil and Peter Ainsworth in the knapping circle.


Terry Frederick enters the "knapping zone"


Barney DeSimone using an Ishi stick.


Steve Carter has a strange knapping method, he pulls the flake from the top!? Errett Callahan said Steve is one of a kind! Steve has the respect of both academic and folk knappers.


Ray Harwood tells Barney DeSimone and Steve Carter to look at the camera. We were planning out trip to Arizona for obsidian - we went but did not find it.


Alton Safford Demos the sling! Damn son---



Joe Dabil demonstrated the atlatl.


On lookers admire Steve Carter's work, among them Barney DeSimone.






Terry Frederick shows Alton Safford and Steve Carter hiscollection ofSollberger points. Solly was supposedto be at this knap-in but had to cancell at the last minute.




Dr. Peter Ainsworth, an archaeologist, was just out of the Flenniken knapping school and was knapping a pattern flaking Cumberland point here,



Joe Dabil does a demo while Alton and Steve Carter look on.



Steve Carter meets Scott Yo, Alton Safford and Terry Frederick look on.



Joe Dabil Pressure Flaking an Ishi Point

I remember the 1987 Wrightwood knapin. It was the first Wrightwood knap-in that people were actually selling stuff, before that it was all trading and knapping and so on. This was one of the knap-ins held at Jackson lake. Jackson lake is an alpine type lake in the high country.It was cold at night and warm and sunny in the day. It was the most beautiful place for a knap-in of all. The camp was a flat plateau just above the lake itself and it had a hard sandy floor, it had a good open area for archery, atlatl and knapping. Joe Dabil came with his friend Terry Fredrick, I had known the two friends since 1983, but we formally met in 1984 and the CSUN knap-in. Joe Dabill is a local legend for wilderness skills and native American crafts. Joe did demos on flintknapping Ishi style, fire drill, atlatl throwing and so on. I forgot my sleeping bag and the night was comming on so Joe showed me how to make a fire bed, the only thing was -it was to shallow and my pants started on-fire, it was wierd -I was dreaming I was in a burning barn! He has joked to me about that for 20 years! Terry was a part time archaeologist and knapper of Chumash points of Monterey Chert.
Brothers -Scott and Larry Yo were flintknappers from the South Bay, I remember the second night out there Scott came into the camp fire with "hello the fire"! He was a buff steel worker and welder- really cool folks. Scott had a Dutch over and he cooked up some amazing peach cobbler. Barney DeSimone came up "the A-wop-a-hoe", was his joke- he is Italian and everyone thought he was an Indian, so he said I am a "wop" and a hoe -so people thought he was a "A-wop-a-hoe", which is not a real tribe! Steve Carter came up from Ramona in his old flatbed truck, Steve was into pattern flaking and amazingly thin percussion bifacing before anyone else I have known about. Alton Safford was there and he demonstrated using the David and Goliath sling- did knapping and ate a lot of apples, he also brought some longbows he had made, his nickname is "Longbow Safford" . Peter Ainsworth and Jeannie Binning showedupfrom the acedemic knapping community and were doing very nice "Crabtree" large biface work. I can't remember much more about that knap-in except it was really fun and wonderful4 days in heaven.


WRIGHTWOOD KNAP IN STARTED IN 1984, SET UP BY RAY HARWOOD AND ALTON SAFFORD AT JACKSON LAKE., BUT OUR FIRST CALIFORNIA FLINTKNAPPING RENDEZVOUS WAS IN 1983 AT CSUN. SET UP BY RAY HARWOOD. AT THE FIRST KNAP IN 1983 : RAY HARWOOD, ALTON SAFFORD, JOHN ATWOOD, RICK WESSEL, CLAY SINGER, GEORGE HUFF, JENNIE BINNING, ROY VANDERHOOK, TERRY FREDERICK, JOE DABIL, FRED BUDINGER, TED HARWOOD, NANCY HARWOOD, BRIAN GUNTHER, AND A HOST OF OTHERS. FIRST LOCATION: C.S.U.N. . SECOND: JACKSON LAKE FLAT. THIRD; CAMP GUFFY (TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN) FOURTH: INDIAN HILLS RANCH. Ray had flintknapped in an artistic vacuum until he was in his early 20s. This is when Ray met fellow Ishi fans, Joe Dabil, Barney DeSimone, Steve Carter, Jim Win, Jennie Binning and Alton Safford. Barney had a small business called Yana Enterprises where he marketed his Ishi posters and items and had become an expert Ishi style knapper, to the point that he had killed a wild boar on Catalina Island armed with a sinew backed bow and Ishi tipped arrow of glass of his own making. Atlton was an avid traditional bow hunter and knapper, he had even hunted big game in Africa a few times with stone points. Years later Alton and Ray started the yearly California Flintknapping Rendezvous. Joe Dabil had become a California legend by the late 1970s and had the nick name of "Indian Joe", this name given to him by the prominent archaeologists of the day. Joe could make fire in of minutes with a natural yucca file board and mule fat stick. Joe was also a master of the Ishi style flintknapping methodology. Joe's Ishi points of both glass and obsidian were each an impressive work of art. Ray and Joe became friends and Ray began to study Joe's flintknapping methods. Joe Dabil had learned the arts of wilderness survival hands on. Joe was an Olympic class long distance runner in the 1960s, and when a Doctor informed him he had a life threatening decease he fled into the wilderness. There in the woods, alone, Joe eked out a survival on natural foods. Eventually Joe relearned the arts of Ishi, sinew back bow making, arrow-smithing, fire drill technology, cordage making, brain tanning and of coarse...flintknapping. As miracle have it, Joe lived out his death sentence and is still practicing wilderness skills today. Steve Carter was already an established master knapper when Ray met him in the early 1980s. Steve had been friends with J.B.Sollberger of Dallas, Texas and with J.B.s inspiration, at the 1978 Little Lake knap-in, Steve developed his own unique knapping style, one in which he detached the flakes of the top of the preform as opposed to the bottom that rests on the palm of the hand. Steve was versatile and also used the Ishi style knapping techniques. Steve's work even impressed the Grand Masters; Sollberger, Titmus, Callahan and Crabtree. Jimm Winn was there at the second or third Wrightwood knap-in with Barney Desimone and George hough and George Hough and Dick Baugh. Jim did a lot of heat treating of local materials there in the famous Wrightwood fire pit at Jackson Lake Flat. After the close of the Flintknappers' Exchange in 1981, there was a void for two years. Communication among flintknappers slowed to a stop. In 1984 at the knap-in at the Northridge Archaeological Research Center I was talking about the need for a newsletter to Clay Singer and Terry Frederick, they suggested I do it, well I had dyslexia, couldn't type and had no money, okay! Alton Safford, Jeannie Binning and Joe Dabill encouraged as well. I couldn't get anyone to help me with the project so I did it myself. I started work on the first issue, all the words were misspelled, the grammar was just as bad, I cut and past the cover. I wanted to call it the Flintknappers' Monthly but I couldn't find those words in the old NARC newsletters so I got close with "FLintknapping Digest" and cut and pasted it on the cover. I used the address list in the old Flintknappers' Exchange at the end of each article to find the knappers. It worked I began to get a flood of mail about it. It was really amateurish and I got a lot of flak, but everybody who got it loved it. Clay Singer said "it has a folksy, underground publication look" . In any case it got better with each issue. I remember asking J.B. Sollberger to write an article for me and he got really mad. He said that I was just trying to associate with his name to gain fame and make the newsletter sell better , I was unaffected and said yes, so do I get the article? We got along fine after that and I did get the article, I think he trusted me to tell the truth after that. He even made me some fluted points. The "J.B." in J.B. Sollberger is rumored to stand for "John the Baptist" . So you see with a reputation like that truth means a lot. I was amazed that the little newsletter was doing so well, my mom was too, she never thought such a weird newsletter would work. I was 24 years old when I started the newsletter and didn't have a whole lot else going, it was great, I met all my flintknapping heroes. One day I got a letter from D.C. Waldorf and he was asking about something, I can't remember, but he referred to the Flintknapping Digest as "The Digest", I put the letter in the next issue and from then on that's what everyone called it. Even now I see it referenced to time and again and it is almost always given its affectionate name "The Digest" it gave knappers a worm and fuzzy feel, like an old dog that you had when you were a kid. Even old dogs pass on, and in the late 1980s, even with Val Waldorf's help, I couldn't do it anymore. After some coaxing the waldorf's took pity on me and took the newsletter over. They gave it a face lift and a new name "Chips" . .Paul Hellweg, a fellow Army Tanker. Paul, likes to specialise inground stone axe manufacture, and he is quite good at it. He was actually a Crabtree and Flenniken Student, but went over to the servival camp when he got a job teaching it at C.S.U.N. where I first met him in the early 1980s. Paul wrote some nice articles for the Flintknapping Digest in 1984 and published a book on knapping the same year, Flintknapping, The Art of Making Stone Tools that has sold over 50,000 copies. Hellweg has also writen many other books and is doing quite well financially. I attented a week long Callahan school with him in the summer and and he appears to be thinking of redoing his book and becomming more active in the knapping world. San Diego, California was a hot bed of really good knappers in the early 1970s, it sprung from a visit from Sollberger sometime in that era. Only Steve Carter remains of that group. Navodne (Rod) Reiner, another California sad story , Rod was one of the San Diego flintknappers that Steve Carter hung around with in the 1970s. Like Steve, Rod was a really good flintknapper, all traditional, and good person. Rod did a lot of knapping and made nice pieces of lithic art but was also interested in the experimental aspect as well. Rod came up with the two man fluting technique; Reiner gripped the biface in his left hand, held it down tightly against his thigh, while his right hand used the full weight of his body from the shoulder to bear down on the flaking tool. Then, to this he added a little more force by using a second person to deliver a light tapping blow to the end of the pressure flaker with a mallet. Reiner stated that the mallet strikes just at the instant that the pressure flake is pressed off. With Rod's method both constant pressure and a releasing percussion impact a nice flute is detached. Rod, whom was also at the Little Lake knap-in was a very good knapper and a big influence on Steve Carter, but Rod was killed early on in a hunting accident. Chris Hardacker was another, he just faded into the woodwork, I saw him working as a digger for Jeannie Binning at one of her digs in the middle 1980s. Robert Blue of Studio City, California was inspired by a collection of Reinhardt's points , Reinhardt had been long dead but Blue did find fellow Gray Ghost collector, Charlie Shewey in Missouri. Robert offered to buy all of Shewey's Gray Ghosts and Richard Warren points and that money was no object. Charlie refused Blue's offer, but directed Robert to Richard Warren. After Robert bought a fair number of points, Warren shared some of his secrets with Robert Blue and introduced him to Jim Hopper, whom Warren had taught. Jim Hopper andRobert Blue became good friends and Robert became very good at art knapping. Barney DeSimone, couched Robert through his early years of knapping. Later Robert inspired Barney to return somewhat to lapidary knapping. It was Robert Blue that taught Ray Harwood to knap in the lever style of Reinhardt, Ray produced dozens of "Raynish Daggers" with the lever flaker. The Raynish Daggers were simply slab points in the form of 10 inch Danish Daggers ("2-D daggers" -not 3 dimensional). These were what Callahan called the ugliest Danish Daggers he had ever seen. After Robert's death and some prompting from DeSimone and Callahan, Harwood returned to traditional flintknapping. One interesting bit of knapping lore I overheard at a knap in goes like this:" Steve Behenes had invented this steel fluting jig that could flute supper this preforms. Steve was close to Robert Blue at the time and he sent Robert a thin Folsom and the detached flutes, Robert returned the detached flute -and he had fluted them ! . Joe Dabil, Joe had become a California legend by the late 1960s and had the nick name of "Indian Joe", this name given to him by the prominent archaeologists of the day. Joe says he learned his style by trail and error using books with Ishi points as a pattern,same for the knapping tools. His notching style comes a great deal from Errett. Joe could make fire in of minutes with a natural yucca file board and mule fat stick. Joe was also a master of the Ishi style flintknapping methodology. I first came to here about him in about 1969 and then in the 70s, he gave demos on Catalina Island for Archaeologists and movie people. His points were often seen for sale for $3.50 up and down the central to northern California coastal towns, these populated by thousands of hippies. I remember buying one in a hippie shop in Pismo Beech in 1976. The hippie lady at the counter said I could meet the knapper, but like as ass I sais "naw it's OK. I did end up meeting him 8 years later, in 1984, at CSUN. Joe's Ishi points of both glass and obsidian were each an impressive work of art. Ray and Joe became friends and Ray began to study Joe's flintknapping methods. Joe Dabil had learned the arts of wilderness survival hands on. Joe was an Olympic class long distance runner in the 1960s, and when a Doctor informed him he had a life threatening decease disease he fled into the wilderness. There in the woods, alone, Joe eked out a survival on natural foods. Eventually Joe relearned the arts of Ishi, sinew back bow making, arrow-smithing, fire drill technology, cordage making, brain tanning and of coarse...flintknapping. As miracle have it, Joe lived out his death sentence and is still practicing wilderness skills today. The information set forth in this text relied heavly on the fallowing publications: Fintknapper's Exchange: Atchiston, Inc. 4426 Constution N.E. Albuquerque, NM 87110 Etidors: Errett Callahan, Jacqueline Nichols and Penelope Katson. Flintknapping Digest. Harwood Archaeology 4911 Shadow Stone Bakersfield, CA 93313 Editor: Ray Harwood Bulletin of Primitive Technology. Journal of the Society of Primative Technology P.O. Box 905 Rexburg, ID 83440 Dave Wescot, Editor Chips Mound Builder Books P.O. Box 702 Branson, MO. 65615 Editors: Val Waldorf, D.C. Waldorf and Dane Martin. New Flintknapper's Exchange. High Fire Flints 11212 Hooper Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70818 Editors: Jeff Behrnes, Steve Behernes and Chas Spear 20Th Century Lithics. Mound Builder Books P.O. Box 702 Branson, MO. 65615 Editors: Val Waldorf and D.C. Waldorf. : WARNING: Flintknapping is very dangerous and can cause serious health problems, including death. Ray Harwood, The World Flintknapping Society or any officer or members of said society do not suggest you should attempt flintknapping, do so only at your own risk. All those that are listed in this history book wore